Network security

Code UE : USEEK7

  • Cours
  • 6 crédits



Nicolas PIOCH

Public et conditions d'accès

Not applicable as this Specific Unit (US) is an integral part of a coherent degree.

Objectifs pédagogiques

This course covers the main aspects of network security. It presents general security problems (confidentiality, integrity, availability, authentication and access control, non-repudiation), known standard solutions for these problems and their implementation in the Internet architecture.

Compétences visées

  • Understand security issues.
  • Manage risks related to information technology.
  • Deploy appropriate solutions according to the confidentiality, integrity and availability constraints of business applications.


0) Introduction to IT security and risk management (ISO 27000 standards)
1) Cryptographic primitives:
  • Cryptographically strong random number generators
  • Historical approaches: codes, steganography, encryption
  • Kerckhoffs principle
  • Taxonomy of cryptanalysis techniques. Example clock attack on smart cards.
  • Friedman’s coincidence index
  • Historical algorithms: Caesar, Vigenère, Playfair, ADFGVX, Enigma
  • Unconditional security of the one-time pad (Vernam cipher)
  • Shannon’s information theory and consequences on algorithmic security
  • Turing’s complexity theory, and computational security. NP-complete problems.
  • Semantic security, cryptogram indistinguishability and non-malleability.
  • Symmetrical ciphers: stream (A5/1, RC4, ChaCha20), block (DES, AES) and their operating modes (ECB, CBC, CTR)
  • Arithmetic notions: modulo n congruences, Euclidean division, GCD, LCM, Euclid’s algorithm, Bézout relations, Chinese remainder theorem, Euler indicator
  • Public-key cryptography: backpack, RSA, OAEP padding, Diffie-Hellman, elliptical curves. Non-repudiation and digital signatures.
  • Cryptographic hash functions: birthday attacks, Merkle-Damgård constructs (MD5, SHA1 and 2), RFC2104 HMACs, sponge functions (SHA3).
  • Public Key Infrastructures: X509v3 certificates, certification authorities, double key pair deployments and encryption private key escrow, revocation (CRL, OCSP RFC6960). Hands-on labs deploying a certification authority, enabling encryption on a web server (HTTPS) and on electronic mail (S/MIME).
  • Applications of quantum theory and consequences on cryptosystem security: Shor and Grover algorithms.
2) Access controls and information security:
  • Authentication: via password (storage techniques : hashing and salt), biometrics (fingerprints, iris recognition…) and token (smart card...) Strong / multifactor authentication.
  • Authorization: access control lists and capacities
  • Hierarchical security models (Bell-LaPadula, Biba…) and compartments. Examples with SELinux and Windows 10. Discretionary vs. Mandatory Access Control.
  • CIA classification (FIPS 199, ISO 27000): impact scale and controls.
  • Access management: role-based access control. Segregation of duties and least privilege.
  • Identity management: generic and privileged accounts
  • Covert channels: example with Covert_TCP
  • Inference control in statistical databases
3) Availability and dependability:
  • Failures, MTBF and MTTR
  • ANSI/TIA-942 standard and Datacenter availability levels
  • Server availability
  • Local storage reliability and virtualization: RAID levels, logical volume management
  • Storage centralization and optimization: Storage Area Networks (SAN), SCSI protocol, Fiber Channel, storage tiering, thin provisioning, over-subscription and thin persistence. Block-level deduplication. World-Wide Names, FC Zoning and LUN masking. SAN fabrics, multi-pathing and ALUA. FCoE and iSCSI.
  • Network redundancy at the link layer: LACP IEEE 802.3ad, multi-switch extensions (Virtual Ports channels), or active/passive mode. VLAN loop management with Multiple Spanning Tree (802.1q)
  • Recovery Time Objective (RTO)
  • High Availability: physical HA clusters, server virtualization (“compute”): license impact
  • Disaster Recovery and Business Continuity Planning: maximum admissible data loss (RPO)
  • SAN-to-SAN data replication, synchronous (metropolitan networks) or asynchronous
  • Stretched VLAN between Data Centers, Network Virtualization (VXLAN) and Overlay Transport Virtualization
4) Security protocols
  • Basic authentication primitives: challenge/response, nonces, mutual authentication schemes, perfect forward secrecy, timestamps
  • TCP-based authentication, and sequence number prediction. Example with SMTP (email).
  • Zero-Knowledge Proofs: transcription, simulators. Examples based on graph isomorphisms, Hamiltonian circuits, and the Feige-Fiat-Shamir protocol. Iteration parallelization.
  • Transport Layer Security: SSL/TLS
  • Network layer security: IPSec, IKE, AH/ESP
  • Applicative layer security: Kerberos (Active Directory), KDC, TGT and resource tickets
  • Link-layer security: GSM security architecture. Roaming, authentication and confidentiality. 3G/4G changes.

Modalité d'évaluation

Final exam.


  • Bruce Schneier : Applied Cryptography
  • Ross Anderson : 'Security Engineering', 2d Edition, Wiley, 2008
  • Alfred J. Menezes, Paul C. van Oorschot et Scott A. Vanstone : 'Handbook of applied cryptography', CRC Press, 2001

Cette UE apparaît dans les diplômes et certificats suivants


EPN03 - Easy
292 rue Saint-Martin 11-B-2
75141 Paris Cedex 03
Tel :01 40 27 24 81
Françoise Dehaynin

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